Chrysanthemums are herbaceous perennial plants. They first appeared in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. Later the plant was brought to India and Japan, and was first transported to Europe in the 17th century, where Linnaeus created its name from the Greek words 'chrysous (golden) plus anthemon (flower). The natural color of the flower was mostly yellow, but in civilization it was modified through hybridization to include white, purple, and red.
The flower extract has a number of positive health benefits. In traditional Chinese medicine, for example, the leaf extract was used as a remedy to cleanse the liver and purify the blood of toxins, and also in the treatment of liver inflammation. The flower contains a number of vitamins and minerals including ascorbic acid, beta carotene, calcium, fiber, iron, magnesium, niacin, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin C, and essential oils.
Chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum Powder Extract
Alternatively, Chrysanthemum can actually help human cells, as it has long been used by traditional healers around the world to treat dizziness, headaches, fevers, and inflammation. Modern medicine uses Chrysanthemum to treat vertigo, hypertension, pneumonia and colitis, among other conditions. Chrysanthemums, as a flower, are also known for their improvement to air quality when kept as houseplants.
>Experimental study on anti-inflammatory activity of a TCM recipe consisting of the supercritical fluid CO2 extract of Chrysanthemum indicum, Patchouli Oil and Zedoary Turmeric Oil in vivo.
(Source-Dongguan Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Dongguan 523808, China.)
Chrysanthemum indicum (Compositae) Linné, Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth and Curcuma wenyujin (Zingiberaceae) Y. H. Chen et C. Ling are three of the extensively used herbal remedies among traditional Chinese medicines for the purpose of anti-inflammation. A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recipe named CPZ consisting extracts of the above three herbs, has shown noteworthy anti-influenza activity, which is closely related to its anti-inflammatory feature.
AIM OF THIS STUDY:
To investigated the anti-inflammtory activity of CPZ in vivo for a further exploration of the recipe's anti-inflammatory properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The anti-inflammatory property of CPZ on acute inflammation was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene (DMB)-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement in mice, as well as the carrageenan-induced paw edema rat model, in which inflammation-related cytokine including prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO) in the edematous paw tissue were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, effect of CPZ on chronic inflammation was observed through granuloma formation in rats subjected to cotton pellet implantation.
CPZ (340, 170, and 85 mg/kg for mice, p.o.) not only decreased the DMB-induced ear vasodilatation but also attenuated capillary permeability under acetic acid challenge in mice. And the significant inhibition on carrageenan-induced paw edema was observed. Further more, the ELISA results showed that CPZ (170, 85, and 42.5 mg/kg for rats, p.o.) could up-regulate the level of IL-1β in the edema paw tissue of rats significantly while down-regulate that of PGE(2), but no apparent effect on TNF-α or NO was observed in the test. Besides, CPZ had a certain degree of restraining effect on the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats and the highest dose of 170 mg/kg even showed a significant suppression on it.
The above results indicated that CPZ possessed a potent anti-inflammatory activity, which is indicated to be closely associated with its regulation on IL-1β and PGE(2) thereby mediating the inflammatory response acting at an appropriate level.
>Chrysanthemum indicum L. extract induces apoptosis through suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation in humanprostate cancer DU145 cells.
(Source-College of Oriental Medicine and Institute of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong Dongdaemungu, Seoul 130-701, Korea.)
Chrysanthemum indicum L. has been shown to possess antiinflammatory and anticancer activities, but its molecular targets/pathways are not yet fully understood in tumor cells. In the present study, the potential effects of C. indicum on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in different tumor cells were examined. The solvent fractions (hexane, CH₂Cl₂, EtOAc, and BuOH,) were obtained from a crude extract (80% EOH extract) of C. indicum. The methylene chloride fraction of C. indicum (MCI) exhibited strong cytotoxic activity as compared with the other fractions and clearly suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation against both DU145 and U266 cells, but not MDA-MB-231 cells. The suppression of constitutive STAT3 activation by MCI is associated with blocking upstream JAK1 and JAK2, but not Src. MCI downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated gene products; this is correlated with the accumulation of the cell cycle at sub-G1 phase, the induction of caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. Moreover, the major components of the MCI were bioactive compounds such as sudachitin, hesperetin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin. Sudachitin, chrysoeriol, and acacetin also exerted significantly cytotoxicity, clearly suppressed constitutive STAT3 activation, and induced apoptosis, although hesperetin did not show any significant effect in DU145 cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that MCI could induce apoptosis through inhibition of the JAK1/2 and STAT3 signaling pathways.
>Hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Chrysanthemum indicum L. flower.
Jeong SC, Kim SM, Jeong YT, Song CH.
Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeoongbuk 712-714, Republic of Korea. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chrysanthemum indicum L. flower (CIF) has been widely used as tea in Korea. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the hot water extract of CIF (HCIF) in in vitro and in vivo systems.
Hepatoprotective activities were evaluated at 250 to 1000 μg/mL concentrations by an in vitro assay using normal human hepatocytes (Chang cell) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) against CCl4-induced cytotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1, which is a key indicator of hepatic injury, was detected by western blot analysis using rabbit polyclonal anti-human CYP2E1 antibody. An in vivo hepatoprotective activity assay was performed at 1000 to 4000 μg/mL concentrations on CCl4-induced acute toxicity in rats, and the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard enzyme assays.
The hepatoprotective effects of HCIF significantly reduced the levels of GOT (60.1%, P = 0.000) and GPT (64.5%, P = 0.000) compared with the vehicle control group (CCl4 alone). The survival rates of HepG2 and Chang cells were significantly improved compared with the control group [82.1% (P = 0.034) and 62.3% (P = 0.002), respectively]. HCIF [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of GOT (49.5%, P = 0.00), GPT (55.5%, P = 0.00), ALP (30.8%, P = 0.000) and LDH (45.6%, P = 0.000) compared with the control group in this in vivo study. The expression level of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein was also significantly decreased at the same concentration (50 mg/kg BW; P = 0.018).
HCIF inhibited bioactivation of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and downregulates CYP2E1 expression in vitro and in vivo.
>Absorption and excretion of luteolin and apigenin in rats after oral administration of Chrysanthemum morifolium extract.
(Source-Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 388 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.)
Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) has the protective effect on cardiovascular diseases. Luteolin and apigenin are two major bioactive components in vivo when CME is orally administrated to experimental animal. The present paper shows the study of the absorption and excretion of luteolin and apigenin in rats after a single oral dose of CME (200 mg/kg). The levels of luteolin and apigenin in plasma, urine, feces, and bile were measured by HPLC after deconjugation with hydrochloric acid or beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase. The results showed that the plasma concentrations of luteolin and apigenin reached the highest peak level at 1.1 and 3.9 h after dosing, respectively. The area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) for luteolin and apigenin were 23.03 and 237.6 microg h mL-1, respectively. The total recovery of the dose was 37.9% (6.6% in urine; 31.3% in feces) for luteolin and 45.2% (16.6% in urine; 28.6% in feces) for apigenin. The cumulative luteolin and apigenin excreted in the bile was 2.05% and 6.34% of the dose, respectively. All of the results suggest apigenin may be absorbed more efficiently than luteolin in CME in rats, and both luteolin and apigenin have a slow elimination phase, with a quick absorption, so a possible accumulation of the two flavonoids in the body can be hypothesized.
Side effects and safety of Chrysanthemum Powder Extract
Not enough is known about the use of chrysanthemum during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Chrysanthemum is a member of the Asteraceae/Compositae family of plants and may cause an allergic reaction in sensitive people. Other members of this family include ragweed, marigolds, daisies, and many others. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking chrysanthemum.
Dosage of Chrysanthemum Powder Extract supplement:
As a supplement, and general dosage is 1000-1500mg a day.